Dear Kitty – The Diary of Anne Frank

Anne Frank (Annelies Marie Frank – 12 June 1929 – c. February 1945) was a German girl of Jewish heritage who became a victim of the Nazi Holocaust.She gained posthumous fame with the 1947 publication of The Diary of a Young Girl (Dutch: Het Achterhuis – English: The Secret Annex), in which she documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944, during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II.The Diary of a Young Girl is one of the world’s best-known books and has been translated into 70 different languages as well as being brought to life through movies and plays.Born a German national, in Frankfurt, Germany, Anne lost her citizenship in 1941.She and her family were forced to move to Amsterdam, Netherlands in 1934 at the age of four as a result of Hitler and the Nazi Party’s persecution of the Jews in Europe.From 1933 to 1942, Anne and her family lived a happy life at Merwedeplein square in Amsterdam, Netherlands.Her father, Otto, was a Jewish businessman while her mother, Edith, stayed home to take care of Anne and Margot.The girls went to school in Amsterdam, and had to learn Dutch.Anne had many friends and enjoyed playing table tennis and dancing with them.She spent her free time reading, writing and riding her bike.Anne also had a fascination with the British royal family and Hollywood movie stars.Then, in May, 1940, the German occupation of the Netherlands began and Nazi persecutions of the Jewish population increased by 1942.On the 5th of July, 1942, Anne’s sister, Margot received a “call-up” to report for a so-called “labour camp” in Nazi Germany.Her parents were suspicious about the “call-up” and realized they had to go into hiding in order to escape the Nazis.The Secret AnnexThe Frank family along with three members of the Van Pels family and Fritz Pfeffer, a dentist, decided to hide in a concealed Secret Annex behind a bookcase in the building of Otto Frank’s business.Otto informed Miep Gies, his secretary and a close and trusted friend of the Frank family that he and his family are going into hiding and asked her if she would be willing to help them.Miep immediately offered her support after seeing trucks loaded with Jews every day heading to the railway station to be taken to Nazi concentration camps.At their apartment, close to the Merwedeplein where the Franks had lived before going into hiding, Gies and her husband also hid an anti-Nazi university student.Anne was just thirteen when she and her family went into hiding.Miep GiesHermine “Miep” Gies (née Santrouschitz; 15 February 1909 – 11 January 2010) was Austrian by birth, but in 1920, at the age of eleven, she was taken in as a foster child by a Dutch family in Amsterdam to whom she became very attached.In 1933, Gies began working at Otto Frank’s Opekta business which manufactured products used for making jellies and jams.With her husband Jan and other Opekta employees, Victor Kugler, Johannes Kleiman and Bep Voskuijl they helped hide the Frank family, the van Pels family and Fritz Pfeffer in the upstairs rooms of the company’s office building on Amsterdam’s Prinsengracht from 6 July 1942 to 4 August 1944 while they kept the daily running of the business as usual.Gies would purchase food for the people in hiding from several grocery shops and markets on a regular basis and never carried more than one shopping bag or what she could hide under her coat.Her husband Jan (who belonged to the Dutch resistance), helped by providing ration cards that he had obtained illegally to provide food and other supplies to the upstairs prisoners.Life in HidingLife for the eight people in the upstairs apartment, which Anne Frank referred to as the Secret Annex, was tense.They lived in constant fear of being discovered.They could never enjoy the freedom of the outdoors.They had to remain quiet during day to avoid detection by workers in the warehouse below.During those two years of hiding in the Annex had changed Anne’s feelings where she now appreciated even the smallest beauties of life, like the sun and the sound of birds.Dear KittyFrom then until the family’s arrest by the Gestapo in August 1944, Anne kept a diary she had received as a birthday present, and wrote in it regularly.She named her diary, Kitty, her favorite, imaginary friend.During the two years hiding from the Nazis, Anne wrote about her feelings and emotions in her diary and to record about events in the Secret Annex.She wrote short stories, started on a novel and copied passages from the books she read in her Book of Beautiful Sentences.She reflected back on her life before coming to the Annex.She noted that her life was heavenly but lacked real meaning.And, she recounts about her carefree days at school but, she does not miss them.Anne also records her perspective of the other inhabitants of the Secret Annex, her feelings of loneliness and her frustrations.ArrestAnne’s diary ends without comment on August 1, 1944.On August 4, 1944, after 25 months in hiding, Anne Frank and the seven others in the Secret Annex were discovered by the Gestapo who had learned about the hiding place from an anonymous tipster (who has never been definitively identified).After the arrest Miep Gies found Anne’s writings in the Secret Annex and kept them in a drawer of her desk in the hope of returning it to her after the war.Concentration CampsOn the 1st of November, 1944, Anne and her sister, Margot, were transferred from Auschwitz to Bergen-Belsen, a concentration camp in northern Germany.Anne and Margot died a few months later (probably of typhus) in February 1945 at Bergen-Belsen and their bodies were thrown into a mass grave.Anne was sixteen years of age.Margot was nineteen.LiberationOtto, the only survivor of the Frank family, was liberated from Auschwitz by Soviet troops on January 27, 1945.In June 1945, he learned of his wife and daughters deaths in the Nazi concentration camps.Miep gave him Anne’s diary that she had saved and several hundred papers containing observations that his daughter had penned during her time in hiding.Otto fulfilled his daughter’s wish to become a writer by publishing her diary in 1947.After the publication of the diary, Otto urged Miep to read the book.She read it only, after he persisted.She said, “I was glad that I had not read the book straight after the arrest. If I had, I would have had to burn it, because it was too dangerous for the people Anne wrote about.”In 2010 Miep Gies died reaching one hundred years of age.Symbol of HopeAnne Frank’s diary gave voice to six million Jewish people who became victims of the brutal, Nazi regime.Her diary is regarded as an incredible account of what life was like during the Nazi occupation and being in the shadow of danger every single day.Considering the cruel hardship she and her family endured, Anne maintained a sense of optimism and hope despite their adversity in an era of hatred.Anne’s most important message from her diary is that all people have the right to live in freedom.The Anne Frank House at Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam where she lived in hiding with her family for more than two years during World War II, is now a museum.

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How Welding Supplies and Accessories are Bought

If you are a new welder or an experienced one, you need to have quality welding accessories and supplies for your trade. Because there are many welding supplies and accessories in the market, it is not easy to choose the right ones. These days, you will find welding supplies easily because they are being sold online and not like the past where you hard to travel to hardware and stores that sell them. Online shopping is preferred by many people these days because you can choose many welding accessories for your work or business at an affordable price. Online shops that sell welding supplies sell them at reduced prices because of the increased competition and also would like to get many customers more than their competitors.

If you want to buy welding supplies and accessories, you need to consider some things. The first thing that you should do is planning a budget. If you do not allocate funds for buying those products, you may end up using a lot of cash more than what you wished to spend. Everyone would like to purchase quality products and on the other hand, save some cash. Before you purchase welding supplies, you should draw a list of the ones you need first. If they are for your welding shop, look for those that are on a higher demand first. You should buy those welding supplies that can help you complete your work if they are not for trade.

The cost of welding supplies is another thing you need to check before you buy them. If you want to save some cash when purchasing such supplies, you should create a list of several outlets that sell welding products. If you have a list of such shops, it will be easy to compare their prices. If you find one that sells its products at a lower price, you should choose it. Before you buy products from such shops, you should check whether they offer quality products. Quality should be prioritized over cost when it comes to welding accessories and supplies. If you buy quality products, they will last longer. Because of that reason, you need to check the quality of the welding supplies you are about to buy before you make any purchases.

Before you buy welding supplies and accessories, you need to check the amount of power required to run them. You should check the nature and size of the welding supplies because they can help you determine the amount of power they will consume. When it comes to thick and thin metals, there is a power variation. If you want to lower energy bills, you should look for the latest welding accessories and supplies because they are energy efficient. You need to check for other things when buying welding supplies apart from the ones I have mentioned above. For instance, you need to check the warranties. You should not buy products that do not have guarantees of more than two years, even if they are the used ones.

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